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„To my dear Cacadou. Old Nick“

15 original photographs of Karl Marx.
They shape our image of him until today.

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What has Marx done today?

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Russian workers went on strike on International Women’s Day 1917. They ended up toppling tsarism.

The depth of the social, economic, and military crisis in Russia and the political consciousness and organization of the working class (in addition to the escalating revolt among soldiers, peasants, students, and oppressed nationalities) raced far in advance of anywhere else in the world in the winter of 1916-1917.

Political parties had it tough in Tsarist Russia. After the defeat of the revolution of 1905-1907, with the formation of the Duma, there was a parliament; however, it was determined according to a three-class franchise system, and placed poorer social strata and the cities at a disadvantage. Both active and passive suffrage were connected to the ownership of land. The fractions were more like tendencies than party fractions.

In the first chapter of her manuscript ‘The Russian Revolution’, Luxemburg describes the revolution(s) of the year 1917 as the ‘product of international developments plus the agrarian question’, and refers to the ‘rising storm of 1911 to 1913’ (see Luxemburg 2004 [1918] p 282-283) in Russia. What does she mean by that?

The revolution in February did not only come as a surprise to the bourgeois and ‘courtly’ opposition. Although the Bolsheviks were able to reorganise themselves (primarily in the factories and the army) and other left parties were able to consolidate themselves over the course of 1916, a revolution did not yet appear to be directly imminent.

Words

Forewords

Numerous authors wrote forewords and afterwords for Capital and the Manifesto. They are indicative of the relative social contexts and provide evidence of the historical shifts in the reception of these works. What did these authors emphasise in their fore- and afterwords? Which readings of the texts did they produce? Which topics stood at the centre of debate at a particular moment?

Keywords

Work on the Historisch Kritische Wörterbuch des Marxismus (HKWM) project began in 1983, the year of the 100th anniversary of the death of Karl Marx. In over 15 volumes including 1,500 entries, numerous authors define and explain Marxist terminology. So far, volumes 1 to 8/II have been published; some of the most important terms stem from these volumes.

The journal Historical Materialism has published some further terms in English.

Following Marx

Marxism? Think one, two, many Marxes …

"All I know is that I am not a Marxist," Karl Marx is reported to have said. He made this much quoted remark with a nod to the Marxist current developing in France at the time. We do not know what exactly Marx was distancing himself from. What is certain, however, is he could not have anticipated one thing: the extent to which, following his death, in his name, though in the form of an "ism," one of the most influential intellectual currents and political movements would spread across the entire globe – Marxism.

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