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“Libertarian Marxism”

Attempts to bring together elements of Marxist and anarchist positions have a long tradition; they acquired new relevance during the 1960s and 1970s as part of a wide, heterogeneous spectrum.

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The first and second New Left

After 1956, Marxist intellectuals in Britain began moving away from the Communist Party and seeking new orientation without rejecting their socialist perspectives.

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Situationist International

The Situationists were an international organisation founded in 1957 by avant-garde artists and revolutionaries that followed the councilist model. Although very small, the Situationists had a remarkable influence over activists in the run-up to May 1968 and during the events that took place in France at the time.

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Solidarity

This British organisation from the 1960s provides another example of the way in which small, but relatively influential groups can move away from Trotskyism without leaving behind their belief in a political vanguard.

In this case, the group was influenced by Socialisme ou Barbarie and turned towards a libertarian understanding of socialism based on the concept of worker autonomy.

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Socialisme ou Barbarie

This French current evolved from the late 1940s through critical delineation to Trotskyism, but, over time, increasingly moved away from Marxism.

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Johnson-Forest Tendency (Marxist humanism)

This tendency developed in the 1940s out of “Third Camp” Trotskyism but increasingly shifted away from its roots.

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The period from 1945 to 1989

After the Second World War, the situation of the parties and movements that followed Marx changed fundamentally. 1956 marked an important turning point as the 20th Congress of the CPSU initiated a programme of “de-Stalinisation”; this partially delegitimised Soviet Marxism. 1968 was also crucial, as student and worker unrest occurred in many countries.

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„Third Camp“

This term refers to a current that has been active since the beginning of the Second World War, primarily within North American Trotskyism.

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Marxist pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism is a political movement that aspires to develop international solidarity between Africans and descendants of Africans.

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Mariáteguism

During the 1920s and early 1930s, the Peruvian journalist and Marxist theorist José Carlos Mariátegui searched for effective, independent social revolutionary opportunities whilst rejecting abstract schemas and ensuring their applicability to the specific historical and social conditions in Latin America.

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The Koza current versus the Rono current

During the 1930s, an intellectual current developed in Japan known as “Koza” (“lectures faction”). It was based on official guidelines drawn up by the Comintern and remained close to the Japanese Communist Party.

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Fukumotoism

This current within Japanese Marxism is named after Kazuo Fukumoto, the theorist and politician. In the early 1920s, Fukumoto was in contact with and was influenced by Georg Lukács and Karl Korsch.

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The left-wing socialist and left-wing communist milieu in 1930s South Western Europe

During the 1930s, numerous Marxist groups in Spain and France rejected Stalinism and the “class collaborationist” policy of the popular front. Moreover, although they supported revolution and class struggle, they kept a certain distance from Trotskyism.

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Left-wing socialism

This term generally refers to independent positions that emerged during the interwar period and that are located between social democracy and communism. At the time, left-wing socialist groups were organised internationally at the “London office”.

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Left Socialism (from 1918)

The term "left socialism" denotes those theories and discussions that emerged, as it were, in the space between dogmatic Marxism-Leninism and the reformism of social democracy, in Western Europe and North America.

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Antonio Gramsci and the Gramsci “lines”

As part of the factional fighting that occurred between the Italian communists in the 1920s, Antonio Gramsci was not only a counterparty to Bordiga, he also won out against him.

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Bordigism (from the 1920s)

This line is named after Amadeo Bordiga, the first chair of the Italian Communist Party, which was established in 1921.

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Councilism (from the 1920s)

In the 1920s, a councilist current developed on the left-wing margins of Dutch and German communism. Councilism was inspired by the councilist movements that had existed during the Russian and German revolutions in 1917 and 1919; they had very little theoretical background.

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“Right-wing” opposition

The communistic opposition and, in the words of its opponents the right-wing opposition’, supported a united front of the workers’ movement against the rise of fascism in a similar manner to Trotskyism. However, it differed in its view of the Soviet Union: whereas the Trotskyists and their precursors were early critics of Stalinisation, the “right-wing” continued to work within the Stalinised parties for several years until they were expelled from them between 1928 and 1929.

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Workers’ Opposition

Around 1920, Workers’ Opposition formed within the Bolshevistic CPSU. This organisation was a left-wing current that Lenin fought against as a “deviation”.

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