Marxism, Christianity and Theology
Radically democratic, humanist and socialist notions can be found throughout the history of Christianity. Today, they are especially evident in liberation theology and in grassroots initiatives such as the "church from below." Brazilian liberation theologist Clodovis Boff has spoken of the need to "assimilate individual elements of Marxism," albeit in a form "so changed and revised that one can longer speak of Marxism." Franz Hinkelammert, Leonardo Boff and Gustavo Gutiérrez were also influential, especially in Latin American.
In other religions, Marxian critique has played only a relatively minor role.
Aside from Marxism's link with Christianity and liberation theology, there is also a link with theology and the critical and utopian import of religiosity. Most of the writings that have emerged from this context are today associated with “post-Marxism.” The authors in question often only seek engagement with Marxism in specific texts or during certain periods of their intellectual development; these efforts essentially represent a form of rapprochement. Relevant texts have been authored by Walter Benjamin, Ernst Bloch, Max Horkheimer, Roland Barthes, Michael Löwy, Giorgio Agamben and Jacques Derrida.