Yugoslavia and the Praxis Group (1960–1975, from 1981)

In Yugoslavia, the so-called Praxis Group attempted, during the 1960s and 1970s, to counterpose a humanist Marx to Stalinism and "Marxism-Leninism".

Like similar currents in the West, the Praxis Group oriented itself mainly towards Marx's early writing, and more generally towards philosophy. The Group consisted of philosophers and social scientists, published the journal Praxis and organised an annual summer school. Both the journal and the summer school were banned in 1975. Publication of the journal's international edition resumed in 1981, however. Since 1995, the journal has appeared under the name Constellations.

Important exponents include Gajo Petrović, Milan Kangrga, Rudi Supek, Danko Grlić and Branko Bošnjak. Texts penned by members of the Praxis Group can be found, in English, at the Marxist Internet Archive and on the website of the Initiative for Praxis Philosophy and Concrete Science.