Councilism (from the 1920s)
In the 1920s, a councilist current developed on the left-wing margins of Dutch and German communism. Councilism was inspired by the councilist movements that had existed during the Russian and German revolutions in 1917 and 1919; they had very little theoretical background.
Councilists distanced themselves politically and theoretically from Lenin, Marxism-Leninism and the policy of the CPSU in the Soviet Union. In fact, councilist democracy became the antithesis of authoritarian party rule. Well-known representatives of council communism include Anton Pannekoek, Paul Mattick and later Maximilien Rubel in France. Classic councilism continued to exist after the Second World War and influenced newer Marxist currents.