Pan-Africanism is a political movement that aspires to develop international solidarity between Africans and descendants of Africans.
It also acts as a heterogeneous collective term for highly diverse political and theoretical currents. In the interwar period, a Marxist wing established itself within the pan-African movement. The publicist, George Padmore, and Cyril Lionel Robert James were among its pioneers; both were born in Trinidad. For a long time, Padmore was active in the orthodox, Moscow-aligned Communist Party of the USA, whereas James, a socialist cultural scientist, belonged to Trotskyist organisations.