The left-wing socialist and left-wing communist milieu in 1930s South Western Europe

During the 1930s, numerous Marxist groups in Spain and France rejected Stalinism and the “class collaborationist” policy of the popular front. Moreover, although they supported revolution and class struggle, they kept a certain distance from Trotskyism.

Examples from this spectrum include the Cercle Communiste Démocratique, Spartacus Circle, the Contre-Attaque group and the Parti Socialiste ouvrier et paysan from France. In Spain, this current also included the Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM), which played an important role in the Spanish civil war.