During the 1920s and early 1930s, the Peruvian journalist and Marxist theorist José Carlos Mariátegui searched for effective, independent social revolutionary opportunities whilst rejecting abstract schemas and ensuring their applicability to the specific historical and social conditions in Latin America.

Mariátegui focused on revolution in Peru with the aim of bringing about an agricultural state; as such, he partially anticipated dependency theory, which was not to gain influence until the 1960s. Some newer concepts of Indo-American socialism view themselves partly in the tradition of Mariátegui. In addition, the Communist Party of Peru placed itself “on the Shining Path of José Carlos Mariáteguis”, yet this was the only reference it made to Mariátegui, and Shining Path was mainly Maoist.